In that case, your 6-year clock begins to run on the date you converted (changed status) to H-1.
E-3 visas are available only for those jobs that demonstrably require a bachelor's degree in the field of work you will be performing. We recently provided assistance in an E-3 visa for a Shakespearean actor and teacher who was coming to teach acting classes in USA. He would probably not have qualified as an artist under E-3 visa, because to be an actor, a bachelor's degree in performing arts is usually not required. But as a teacher, a bachelor's degree was indeed required.
The employer should withdraw your application.
You do need a job. The company does not have to be a specific size, but it should be large enough to require a professional accountant (not just a book keeper).
Just go to Canada or Mexico and get your H-4 stamping and come back. That should work.
To the best of my knowledge - no. You need an employer.
There are three kind of E visas: E-1, E-2 and E-3. You are probably thinking of E-2. Please read up on them. The primary applicant must be a citizen or national of the country in question. Their family can come as derivative beneficiaries.
You can apply for B visa to stay for a few more months. You cannot do business on that visa, but at least you will be able to sell when the time is better. Details are on my blog.
As far as I recall, TARP focuses only on H-1 employees. See my blog article with links to the law: http://forums.immigration.com/blog.php?b=94
One of the questions I am asked quite frequently is whether or not an E-1/E-2 visa holder can apply for a green card and not jeopardize his or her E status. The answer is PROBABLY yes he can.
In the E visa context, this is what the govt says:
9 FAM 41.51 N15 INTENT TO DEPART UPON TERMINATION OF STATUS