What you are asking me has nothing to do with US immigration laws. This is a matter for an employment lawyer in the state where you are working. Under US immigration laws, you can resign in USA any time.
Lawyers should not get involved with finding jobs. That creates an inherent conflict of interest. Nothing we can do about finding you a job. Once you have a job in USA, we can assess the visa processes and advise you and your employer.
I checked with Rajiv. He said that a passport is ultimately the property of the issuing government. Punjab police will probably not be able to hold the passport beyond a certain time. We do not practice laws of India (US only). They need to discuss this with local counsel.