Frequently Asked Questions - Adjustment of Status

The process though which a person within USA obtains a change in their status to green card holder. This is usually the last step for (most not all) green card process.

AC21 AOS Portability (62)

AC21 is the name given to a law that provides for several matters including the ability to change jobs while an employment-based green card is pending (I-485 AC21 portability) and to start working for an H-1B employer as soon as transfer petition is filed with the USCIS.

  1. Ability to Pay
  2. Priority date retrogression -- consequences and concerns
  3. Spouse of an O-1 - next step to Green Card
  4. Questions regarding I-485
  5. AOS interview next week, mother in India on AP
  6. AOS applicants applying for H-1 visa
  7. EAD-AC21-Self Porting
  8. AC21 and losing job
  9. J1 overstayed by years, married to a greencard holder
  10. Questions on AC21, EAD, losing job, etc.
  11. I-485 pending and after 6 months laid off
  12. AC21
  13. Current USCIS procedures for PD transfer and AOS
  14. AC-21 Ability to pay
  15. Changing jobs multiple times after I-485 pending
  16. Can AC21 be done for a future job?
  17. I-485 AOS Pending, Employer's Bankruptcy
  18. Important questions on H-1, AP and Travel
  19. Working abroad while AOS pending
  20. Working for two companies on EAD
  21. AC21 - accepting a green card
  22. Leave of absence - I-485 pending
  23. Marriage to US Citizen with EB AOS is pending
  24. Nufield Memo-Are you deportable even if in valid AOS/I-485 pending?
  25. What does AOS approval mean?
  26. Following to join
  27. Employment-based out of status protection for AOS - Section 245(K)
  28. I-485: pre-adjudication and employment verification letter
  29. Status, authorized period of stay and unlawful presence
  30. I-485 interview-- does arrest create a problem
  31. H-1 Extension based upon spouse's 140; Child born in USA
  32. EB-3 "Unavailable"
  33. GC future job; H-1 ext. revocation upon 140 denial, etc
  34. Converting from EAD back to H-1--Updated 6 April 2009
  35. Employers and Employees -- H-1 or EAD?
  36. H-1 and EAD
  37. I-485 Priority Dates and Processing Dates
  38. GC Compliance for Employers
  39. Starting business while in AOS/I-485/H-1/H-4
  40. Am I obliged to join my sponsoring employer after GC approval?
  41. Does chargeability change with citizenship change?
  42. Start-up applying for H-1 and AC21 for employees
  43. AC21 Portability and Related Issues
  44. Filing EB1 while EB2 AOS is pending
  45. Further questions on AC21
  46. Supervisory review
  47. AOS Pending, Should H-1 be Renewed
  48. Priority Date and AOS (Form I-485) Processing
  49. EAD and H-1 Conversions for Derivatives
  50. Gap in Employment during AOS
  51. AOS Denial – Consequences for H-1
  52. If H-1 transfer is denied, can I rejoin my old employer?
  53. AC21, changing jobs, when to file Supplement J
  54. Changing Employers With An Approved I-140 After January 17 2017
  55. The Proposed I-140 EAD Rule - FAQ's
  56. What is I-485 Pre-adjudicate/Pre-adjudication and How soon must I join my future green card employer
  57. How soon can I change employers after getting green card?
  58. Considerations for AC21 job portability
  59. Changing from EB-3 to EB-2 Category
  60. I-140 Revoked after AC21 Portability
  61. Obama's Immigration Action EAD At I-140 Stage
  62. From AOS to pending to green card

EAD (AOS) (5)

Employment Authorization Document. This is evidence that a person is authorized to work in USA. People undergoing Adjustment of Status (AOS or I-485 process) are entitled to an EAD.

  1. Consular Processing
  2. I-485 Filed While Applicant is Outside United States
  3. My mom's green card interview
  4. Can we still file for AOS
  5. Quickest way to get a GC
  6. Pending I-485 and marraige
  7. K-1 Visa AOS
  8. AOS and EAD
  9. Question - unlawful presence in AOS
  10. Working abroad while AOS pending
  11. Working for two companies on EAD
  12. Leave of absence - I-485 pending
  13. Marriage to US Citizen with EB AOS is pending
  14. Nufield Memo-Are you deportable even if in valid AOS/I-485 pending?
  15. What does AOS approval mean?
  16. Following to join
  17. Employment-based out of status protection for AOS - Section 245(K)
  18. I-485: pre-adjudication and employment verification letter
  19. Status, authorized period of stay and unlawful presence
  20. I-485 interview-- does arrest create a problem
  21. H-1 Extension based upon spouse's 140; Child born in USA
  22. EB-3 "Unavailable"
  23. GC future job; H-1 ext. revocation upon 140 denial, etc
  24. Converting from EAD back to H-1--Updated 6 April 2009
  25. Employers and Employees -- H-1 or EAD?
  26. H-1 and EAD
  27. I-485 Priority Dates and Processing Dates
  28. GC Compliance for Employers
  29. Starting business while in AOS/I-485/H-1/H-4
  30. Am I obliged to join my sponsoring employer after GC approval?
  31. Does chargeability change with citizenship change?
  32. Start-up applying for H-1 and AC21 for employees
  33. AC21 Portability and Related Issues
  34. Further questions on AC21
  35. Supervisory review
  36. AOS Pending, Should H-1 be Renewed
  37. Priority Date and AOS (Form I-485) Processing
  38. EAD and H-1 Conversions for Derivatives
  39. Gap in Employment during AOS
  40. AOS Denial – Consequences for H-1
  41. How to change from Adjustment of Status to Consular Processing for green card
  42. Getting married when AOS I-485 is pending (following to join and other options)
  43. The Proposed I-140 EAD Rule - FAQ's
  44. Applying for green card while visiting the USA
  45. October 2015 Visa Bulletin Confusion FAQ's
  46. Priority date port and multiple I-485/AOS petitions
  47. I-485/AOS/AC21 issues in job through future employer - I-485/AOS
  48. Using Obama's Immigration Action to Apply for AOS/EAD
  49. J-1 Physician in Waiver Job Applying for AOS/1-485
  50. Concurrent AOS filing for EB-2 Physical Therapist
  51. EB-2 eligibility
Ability to Pay

1. USCIS says that it evaluates each consolidated financial statement on a caseby-case basis under the preponderance of evidence standard to determine whether the petitioner has the ability to pay the proffered wage.

2. USCIS says that, in this situation, the new employer is not obligated to demonstrate the ability to pay from the date of portability.

Priority date retrogression -- consequences and concerns

A 1. There are two possibilities. First, the case is not yet ripe for adjudication (for instance, it has not been assigned to an officer or the security clearances are not yet submitted or obtained), USCIS can shelf the case and not process it any longer untile the PD becomes current again. Second, USCIS can “preadjudicate” that case. That means the case is adjudicated and then shelved for PD to become current again. I do not believe there exists a mechanism currently to determine what USCIS will do with an individual case.

Spouse of an O-1 - next step to Green Card

The way it works is that the company can file everyone's AOS (Form I-485) together OR they can first get your husband's I-140 approval and leave you to file the last step (AOS) for the family.

Questions regarding I-485

Answer 1: EAD is usally processed within 90 days and AP within 3-6 months. You can check I-131 processing times from links on this page: http://www.immigration.com/processin...-status-checks

Answer 2: A visa stamp is NOT required. Proper status only is needed.

AOS interview next week, mother in India on AP

You need to contact USCIS customer service for guidance. Definitely put something down in writing that you are requesting a rescheduling. Maybe asking your Congressman's assistance is the best way to go for rescheduling.

AOS applicants applying for H-1 visa

We would highly recommend not applying for an H visa if it can be avoided. In the past few weeks, I have provided consultations to various employers on H-1 visa refusals. The refusals were ridiculous, illegal and would be overturned if there were an adequate mechanism for reversal. So, I see no point in applying for an H-1 visa. Even if you enter on AP and continue working for the original H-1 employer, you ARE considered to still be on H-1. All other matters are more or less ancillary.

EAD-AC21-Self Porting

Very little is clear about self-porting. Read the Yates Memo of May 2005. It seems you should be fine as long as the jobs are same or similar, but like I said, not much is known about this issue.

AC21 and losing job

AC21 should be filed. The fact that you were out of job for 8 months is irrelevant. As long as the jobs are same or similar, you should have no issues.

J1 overstayed by years, married to a greencard holder

Unless your spouse becomes a US citizen, nothing can be done as far as I can see. If you had a 2 years HRR, you have bigger problems.

Questions on AC21, EAD, losing job, etc.

1A.  Yes.

2A. Yes, but you will then lose H-1 status (which can be revived by reentering USA using an H-1 visa during the life of your H-1 and taking up single-employer job with the H-1 sponsoring employer – not a difficult task, usually).

3A. Correct. You are in authorized period of stay. That has been explained in my blog.

4A. You can stay as long as CIS does not send an RFE or a Notice of Intent to Deny requiring you to prove similar, alternate employment (AC21 portability – also explained in detail on my blog).

I-485 pending and after 6 months laid off

The way I see it, until and unless your AP or 485 is revoked, it is legal to use both.

AC21

AC21 can never be filed before I-485 has been filed pending 180 days. I have fairly detailed discussion on these issues on my blog. http://forums.immigration.com/blog.php?u=1

Current USCIS procedures for PD transfer and AOS

I would probably do nothing. Under current USCIS procedures, they scan an applicant for all existing I-140 approvals. You are then automatically assigned the earliest PD you are entitled to.

AC-21 Ability to pay

Normally, ability to pay is not an issue for AC21 employer. But these are unexplored situations. Tough to predict.

Changing jobs multiple times after I-485 pending

I see no restriction in law preventing multiple job changes. In most cases, I like to inform USCIS, but speak with your lawyers.

Can AC21 be done for a future job?

That is correct for AC21 portability. But USCIS can ask why you are not working for that employer right now. If you have a good, truthful answer for that question, you should be fine.

I-485 AOS Pending, Employer's Bankruptcy

1. If your job remains the same and regular salary continues to be paid I see no issue for H-1 or green card.

2. An amendment should be filed, though it is debatable if it is required.

3. In my view, AC21 port is easier.

Important questions on H-1, AP and Travel

1. I think I prefer AP. Read the Cronin memo and you will understand that even if you enter using AP, you will be considered to be on valid H-1 as long as you were maintaining H-1 status before you left. Search the word "Cronin" on my blog .

2. No. See answer above.

3. It is impossible to predict times. Plan for a six-month turnaround.

4. Do not be scared of queries. We are yet to lose an H-1 case. I am not aware of any queries on AP.

5. Advance Parole and Passport.

Working abroad while AOS pending

1. An EAD is good to work on US soil only. If you wish to work in a third country, you have to look to their laws for work permissions. You should file an AC21 portability and make sure during your entire stay abroad you have at least your Advance Parole; preferable both your AP and H-1 visa.

2. As long as the permanent job continues to exist, there is no other requirement of presence.

3. I see no problem with visiting USA as often as you like.

Working for two companies on EAD

1. Theoretically, you can work for as many companies as you like on EAD. My concern would be the implication that you no longer have a full time job with the sponsoring company, which is a requirement for the green card.

2. Since you are on a derivative EAD, you have even more freedom than the primary applicant. Other than an S corporation (I think that requires green card under tax laws), you can form any kind of corporation (LLC, etc.), but do check on the State law.

AC21 - accepting a green card

A1) There is no formal procedure other than joining, preparing a Form I-9, being on the payroll and actually working.

A2) You can behave like you would in any other permanent job - take vacations, etc.

A3) That question has been answered on my blog. See http://forums.immigration.com/blog.php?b=36

Leave of absence - I-485 pending

a). The first issue would be whether or not you still have a "permanent job" that would qualify you for a green card. In situations of long vacation, questions could be raised whether or not the green card job is indeed permanent; if so, who will do it in your absence; what is the reason for your leave; are you terminating your relationship with your employer, etc. If you have good answers to all these questions, you are fine.

Marriage to US Citizen with EB AOS is pending

NIW applicants get their green card based upon an expectation of employment - not employment (unless you are a physician). So, if you have a job offer in your area of expertise, your travel on AP is fairly safe.

A legal marriage in India is fully recognized in USA.

Nufield Memo-Are you deportable even if in valid AOS/I-485 pending?

That example does not make any sense. It appears to be more a clarification of a concept - NOT practice. Do NOT worry. You are fine. If someone has not already done so, I will write USCIS next week after reviewing the entire 51 page memo carefully. Do NOT lose sleep over this.

What does AOS approval mean?

Approval of AOS (Form I-485) means she is now a green card holder as of the date of the approval. The only thing she needs is the proof of that fact. You can take the approval notice, make an infopass appointment and ask that her passport be stamped with evidence that her green card has been approved. That stamp is as good as a green card. She can travel using that.

Following to join

I am assuming the situation is that the husband's AOS is pending and he is using AC21 portability. That said, she is entitled to follow to join because she was (is) married to him before his green card got approved. There is NO requirement that a spouse must on a derivative visa (like H-4) in order to follow to join. She can follow to join even if she is outside USA, OR on F-1, H-1, L-1 or any independent visa. She will have to stay outside USA if her H-1 is denied, unless he revives his H-1 and brings her back on H-4.

Employment-based out of status protection for AOS - Section 245(K)

Pursuant to section 245k of INA, an employment-based applicant and their family can file for an AOS (I-485) if they have been out of status or have worked without authorization for less than 180 days. The protection period is counted since the date of your most recent entry into USA. So if before filing I-485, you leave USA and reenter, you should have no issues. There are other ways to fix this also, but this is the most direct.
See attached USCIS Neufield Memo of 14 July 2008.

I-485: pre-adjudication and employment verification letter

1. EVL can be asked for at any stage of AOS/I-485 process. It is REQUIRED when you submit the 485, but thereafter it is discretionary.

2. The main reasons are that USCIS has to make sure you still have a job and the job is "same or similar" to what was described in the labor cert (or I-140 for EB1).

3. This means your application has been reviewed and adjudicated to be approvable. So, USCIS is just waiting for the visa numbers to be current.

 

 

Status, authorized period of stay and unlawful presence

Status, authorized period of stay and unlawful presence are three VERY important concepts in US immigration laws with far reaching implications. The nuances in these concepts are so intricate that they can trip up even my fellow-lawyers. I see issues in this all the time.

Here is a brief primier to enable you to understand the basics. This is by no means an exhaustive analysis.

Status

I-485 interview-- does arrest create a problem

Quote: I just got a letter from USCIS that I need to appear for a I-485 interview. I had applied my green card under the EB-XX. To update you i had an arrest record in 2005 for a domestic violence battery case, which was later dismissed in court. Also you might be aware my wife is currently in india, and we are under separation. She will join me on (XXX date) if she agrees for marriage counseling. Under these circumstances I had some questions which I wanted answers for: Please let me know your response.
 

H-1 Extension based upon spouse's 140; Child born in USA

Quote: 1. Hello Rajiv, my wife and I have been working on H1B for different employers. My employer applied for my GC in 07. I have my I-140 approved, my wife and I have our EAD cards and AP. Thanks to your team! Now my wife's H1B term (6 years) ends on Jan 2010. Does this mean that if she wishes to continue her employment with the same employer after Jan 2010, she "HAS" to use her EAD ?

Ans. Yes. Under the current USCIS policy, they will not extend her H-1, based upon your I-140. They used to do that a few years ago, but not any more, as far as I know.
 

EB-3 "Unavailable"

Correct. "Unavailable" means that it is the ESTIMATE of the State Department that visa numbers for India are exhausted for this fiscal year which ends on September 30. But the estimate may not always be accurate. DOS may go back and reopen this category if they need to (unlikely, but not impossible). Your green card can go on in your absence. That is no problem as long as we have answers to these questions: 1. Is the job really permanent? 2. Why is the employer accommodating you? 3. Who is performing the job in your absence?

GC future job; H-1 ext. revocation upon 140 denial, etc

Ans. Yes. As long as the employer has the intention of keeping the job open for you and you have the intention to join them, the green card process can continue.

Quote: If by any chance they say that I can do it, does it involve just an amendment to my H1b or will it be a fresh H1b? My job responsibilities will change and $8000 change in salary only.( from Research Associate to resident). If yes, can I join residency before the amendment is approved? I heard that INS should receive the petition before the join date and I am fine.

Converting from EAD back to H-1--Updated 6 April 2009

 

Quote: I am currently on H1b status valid till may-2011 and have a valid EAD card, My I-485 is pending for over 180 days. My company has cut my position and may revoke my H1b. If I transfer my H1b to another company and then work on EAD. Will my H1b remain in the dormant status?

Ans. Yes.

Quote: If yes, can i switch back to my H1b if i wish to? and what would be the process?( go out of country to get stamped?)

Employers and Employees -- H-1 or EAD?

 There are two situations to analyze here: being benched and getting paid a lower salary. Both of them have problematic implications for employers and employees.

Here is what concerns me. As far as I know, it has never been done so far, but the possible consequences of being benched are that the I-485 can be denied and (POSSIBLY, but there are strong arguments against it) I-140 could be revoked if already approved. If I-140 is not approved, USCIS could easily deny the I-140.

H-1 and EAD

Qo. I plan to be on EAD after my 6th year of H1-B expires on September 23, 2008. If I decide to be back on H1-B then is there any time limit within we have to file for H1B extension after its expiration on September 23, 2008 while I am working on EAD?
Ans. Generally speaking there is no time limit as long as you are entitled to the extension.

Qo. For example, will we have to file within 6 months or 1 year after September 23, 2008 while I-185 is still pending?

I-485 Priority Dates and Processing Dates

In a pending AOS (I-485), unless your PD is current, USCIS will not touch your application. Only when the PD becomes current, they start processing applications ROUGHLY in the order received.

GC Compliance for Employers

Quote: (1) If we revoke their H-1, are we still required to pay full wages if our clients say they do not currently have a project for our employees?

Ans. You are not required to pay "bench salaries" for employees whose H-1 are revoked (remember you must inform CIS and offer employee a one-way ticket home). But we then have exposure to the questions, "do you still have a "permanent" job for them?" If the answer is no, then their GC processing can be interrupted unless they use AC21 portability.

Starting business while in AOS/I-485/H-1/H-4

1. She can NOT do this on H-4. Once you folks file 485 and get EAD, things will be different.

You can then be a passive investor (performing no work type activity for the company) even while on H-1. You can also be an active investor if you wish to move to EAD as long as you maintain your intention to work full time for the GC sponsoring employer. Your wife can work for the company, own it, be partners, etc. as long as she has the EAD.

Am I obliged to join my sponsoring employer after GC approval?

Quote: 1) Do I need to inform company ‘B’ and be in their payroll with immediate effect?
2) If company ‘B’ cannot provide me a job in my location and offer the salary I demand, is it a valid reason for me not to join ‘B’?
3) How should I inform company ‘A’ about my green card and what is the best reason to justify my case to continue work with company ‘A’?
or Should I inform company ‘A’ only when I fill the I-9 form next year Jan 2010.

Does chargeability change with citizenship change?

Still, India. Your chargeability follows the place of birth, not your citizenship.

Start-up applying for H-1 and AC21 for employees
AC21 Portability and Related Issues

Quote:

Both me & my wife have EAD and have our full time job. My question is , it is possible for us to start a new LLC ??

Filing EB1 while EB2 AOS is pending

I am thinking about applying for green card under EB-1A or EB-1B. Currently I have an approved I-140 (2005, EB2). I have a few questions:
Q.a) Is the EB1A or EB1-B I-140 premium processed?

Q.b) Do I need to submit another set of I-485 with the EB-1 application even though the EB-2 I-485 are pending with USCIS?

Q.c) Which option would be better for me - EB-1A or EB-1B? I am currently an associate professor at XXX University.
 

Further questions on AC21

Quote:

 I would like to be on my H1B even with the new employer. To my knowledge we should file a new H1B within a month but due to the market situation if I have to get on to EAD then can I get back to H1B? If yes then with in how many days should I apply for H1B?

Supervisory review

Pretty much anything can be within the context of a case. Supervisory review means just that - a review by a senior level adjudicator. Usually, that means there is some unusual procedural or legal issue involved. The good news is that, means your case is being reviewed, the bad, we don't know for what. You can try to go through a Congressman's office to find out more if you like.

AOS Pending, Should H-1 be Renewed

Bottomline - I think H-1 should be renewed.

A little more info: A few months ago, I used to feel strongly that AOS applicants should keep their H-1 active for several reasons. Two of these are:

One, EAD issuance was erratic and CIS had discontinued issuance of interim EAD's (that is, if in 90 days your EAD is not issued, you could walk with a infopass appointment to your local CIS office and get an EAD). Thus, EAD's were unreliable and given for only a year. You could have interruptions in your work.

Priority Date and AOS (Form I-485) Processing

As of July 2008, this is how the system works.

First, let me provide a little background. Priority Date is the date your PERM is filed (in Case of EB-1 or NIW – the date your I-140 is filed; in case of Family-based petitions – the date your I-130 is filed.).

EAD and H-1 Conversions for Derivatives

Qo1. Would it be advisable for my wife(secondary applicant) to change to EAD in case she gets a better employment with another employer? This employer is not willing to transfer H1.
Ans. That should be fine.

Qo2. All that is required to work on EAD is fill in form I-9 and submit a copy of EAD with it. Does the employer have to do anything like notifying USCIS etc?
Ans2. The employer has to do nothing more than prepare the I-9 and keep updating it every time new EAD is issued.

 

Gap in Employment during AOS

Q1. Is there any limit or restriction for number of days without work between changing job?
Ans. No. I do not believe a few weeks should make a difference.

Q2. Will this impact his GC process?
Ans. Not as long as he is eligible for AC21 portability.

AOS Denial – Consequences for H-1

Qo. If an AOS (adjustment of status or I-485) applicant has already used up six years on H1 and is currently in 8th year of H1, what are his/her options if AOS gets denied before the 8th year on H1 expires?
Ans. A lot depends upon the grounds of denial and whether they are likely to be overturned on a Motion to Reopen/Reconsider. Do note, there is no appeal against a 485 denial.

If H-1 transfer is denied, can I rejoin my old employer?

Watch the Video on this FAQ: If H-1 transfer is denied, can I rejoin my old employer?

Video Transcript

According, to USCIS, when you are working under AC21 you are not out of status, you are in fact working according to the law and hence you should be able to join back. More...

 

AC21, changing jobs, when to file Supplement J
Changing Employers With An Approved I-140 After January 17 2017

You can continue to extend your H-1 even after I-140 is revoked by the employer, IF, the revocation was sent more than 180 days after I-140 approval.

Under AC21, you do not have to start a new green card if:

1. Your I-140 is approved;

2. Your I-485 has been pending for 180 days or more;

3. You will take an employment same as or similar to your green card job; and

4. You file Supplement J.

The Proposed I-140 EAD Rule - FAQ's

Question 1: Redo the PERM or just the I-140. If redoing the PERM again then what's new in this regulation? 

Answer: After 180 days, you can extend H-1 even if 140 is withdrawn.

Question 2: It seems that there is no easy provision for EAD/AP for approved 140 applicants. So is there any point in waiting for this rule or Should I consider Visa stamping is only option for traveling outside US? Please suggest as I waited for a year or long thought they are going to give AP.

What is I-485 Pre-adjudicate/Pre-adjudication and How soon must I join my future green card employer

See clip from Attorney Rajiv S. Khanna's conference call video that addresses this question.  

https://youtu.be/1QbgUmUUJvc?t=402

FAQ Transcript:

Question: What is I-485 Pre-adjudicate/Pre-adjudication?

How soon can I change employers after getting green card?

See clip from Attorney Rajiv S. Khanna's conference call video that addresses this question. 

https://youtu.be/3Heaadpk1Ik?t=599

FAQ Transcript:

Considerations for AC21 job portability

See clip from Attorney Rajiv S. Khanna's conference call video that addresses this question. 

https://youtu.be/GtOqgqgEG6I?t=242

FAQ Transcript

Changing from EB-3 to EB-2 Category

See clip from Attorney Rajiv S. Khanna's conference call video that addresses this question.  

I-140 Revoked after AC21 Portability
Obama's Immigration Action EAD At I-140 Stage

I have heard that there is a proposal to allow filing of I-485 

From AOS to pending to green card
Other than updating the I-9, there are no immigration law steps involved in going from AOS to pending to green card. There is no need for any specific documentation. So far, no proof of job has ever been required. Your W-2/Paystubs should suffice, if the issue ever arises. If you are unsure, just get a new offer letter confirming the job.
Expedited Advanced Parole

There has been no change to this policy.  USCIS requires documentary evidence of the emergent situation, as well as supporting documentation indicating that the applicant has a pending application.

AOS interview next week, mother in India on AP

You need to contact USCIS customer service for guidance. Definitely put something down in writing that you are requesting a rescheduling. Maybe asking your Congressman's assistance is the best way to go for rescheduling.

Advance Parole

If her I-485 was pending, she would not be out of status.

With I-485 pending can I be an investor ?

I see no problem with it, especially, if you are a passive investor who takes no action to manage or conduct the business of the entity invested in.

I-485 approved while outside the USA - travel on AP or GC
What if I never joined the employer who sponsored me for green card?

Watch the Video on this FAQ: What if I never joined the employer who sponsored me for green card?


Joining a company other than green card sponsor, staying abroad after green card and reentry permit
Changing Employers With An Approved I-140 After January 17 2017

You can continue to extend your H-1 even after I-140 is revoked by the employer, IF, the revocation was sent more than 180 days after I-140 approval.

Under AC21, you do not have to start a new green card if:

1. Your I-140 is approved;

2. Your I-485 has been pending for 180 days or more;

3. You will take an employment same as or similar to your green card job; and

4. You file Supplement J.

Inter- Country adoption by Indian couple on EAD

If you are not a US citizen, you need to adopt the child and then to possess custody of the child for 2 years (as far as I remember). Then the child can come here on H-4 or a derivative green card. 

October 2015 Visa Bulletin Confusion FAQ's

FAQ's Updated on 21 September 2015 

The Proposed I-140 EAD Rule - FAQ's

Question 1: Redo the PERM or just the I-140. If redoing the PERM again then what's new in this regulation? 

Answer: After 180 days, you can extend H-1 even if 140 is withdrawn.

Question 2: It seems that there is no easy provision for EAD/AP for approved 140 applicants. So is there any point in waiting for this rule or Should I consider Visa stamping is only option for traveling outside US? Please suggest as I waited for a year or long thought they are going to give AP.

Inter- Country adoption by Indian couple on EAD

If you are not a US citizen, you need to adopt the child and then to possess custody of the child for 2 years (as far as I remember). Then the child can come here on H-4 or a derivative green card. 

October 2015 Visa Bulletin Confusion FAQ's

FAQ's Updated on 21 September 2015 

Using Obama's Immigration Action to Apply for AOS/EAD

See clip from Attorney Rajiv S. Khanna's conference call video that addresses this question. 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QvnIAm0nQJ8#t=808

FAQ Transcript

Immigration Impact of Crimes, Misdemeanor Conviction and Petty Offense Exception

See clip from Attorney Rajiv S. Khanna's conference call video that addresses this question.  

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xp4B1_qhvtM#t=2538

 

FAQ Transcript

Consular Processing

The Immigration and Nationality Act (INA) offers an individual two primary paths to permanent resident status (a green card). An individual who is the beneficiary of an approved immigrant petition and has an immigrant visa number immediately available may apply at a U.S. Department of State consulate abroad for an immigrant visa in order to come to the United States and be admitted as a permanent resident.

I-485 Filed While Applicant is Outside United States

No. It is required that the applicant be on U.S. soil when the application is submitted. For those applying from outside the United States, Consular Processing would be in order.

My mom's green card interview

If USCIS so wishes, they can certainly make an issue of it. But they tend to be much more tolerant of cases of immediate family like parents and spouse.

Can we still file for AOS

If he entered legally and is not subject to any other bars, and if you are a US citizen, he can apply for AOS when applying for his green card through marriage to you.

Quickest way to get a GC

Generally speaking, where there is a choice, we always file multiple green card applications for spouses.

Pending I-485 and marraige

If your priority date is current, you can file her AOS as long as she is legally in the US. I just have an issue with using F-1 visa to accomplish this purpose. Please consult with a lawyer about the details.

K-1 Visa AOS

I think you will be fine. As I recall, the law only requires you to get married within 90 days. But confirm this information and do check with a lawyer as to whether you may travel or not while AOS is pending. This could be the only issue I can think of.

AOS and EAD

It looks like you have several options. Once 180 days of AOS pendency are over after I-140 approval, usually employers cannot hurt you. Speak with a lawyer.

Question - unlawful presence in AOS

A1. As I see it, the wife will be out of status right away and unlawfully present if USCIS revokes her H-4 or her I-94 expires.

Working abroad while AOS pending

1. An EAD is good to work on US soil only. If you wish to work in a third country, you have to look to their laws for work permissions. You should file an AC21 portability and make sure during your entire stay abroad you have at least your Advance Parole; preferable both your AP and H-1 visa.

2. As long as the permanent job continues to exist, there is no other requirement of presence.

3. I see no problem with visiting USA as often as you like.

Working for two companies on EAD

1. Theoretically, you can work for as many companies as you like on EAD. My concern would be the implication that you no longer have a full time job with the sponsoring company, which is a requirement for the green card.

2. Since you are on a derivative EAD, you have even more freedom than the primary applicant. Other than an S corporation (I think that requires green card under tax laws), you can form any kind of corporation (LLC, etc.), but do check on the State law.

Leave of absence - I-485 pending

a). The first issue would be whether or not you still have a "permanent job" that would qualify you for a green card. In situations of long vacation, questions could be raised whether or not the green card job is indeed permanent; if so, who will do it in your absence; what is the reason for your leave; are you terminating your relationship with your employer, etc. If you have good answers to all these questions, you are fine.

Marriage to US Citizen with EB AOS is pending

NIW applicants get their green card based upon an expectation of employment - not employment (unless you are a physician). So, if you have a job offer in your area of expertise, your travel on AP is fairly safe.

A legal marriage in India is fully recognized in USA.

Nufield Memo-Are you deportable even if in valid AOS/I-485 pending?

That example does not make any sense. It appears to be more a clarification of a concept - NOT practice. Do NOT worry. You are fine. If someone has not already done so, I will write USCIS next week after reviewing the entire 51 page memo carefully. Do NOT lose sleep over this.

What does AOS approval mean?

Approval of AOS (Form I-485) means she is now a green card holder as of the date of the approval. The only thing she needs is the proof of that fact. You can take the approval notice, make an infopass appointment and ask that her passport be stamped with evidence that her green card has been approved. That stamp is as good as a green card. She can travel using that.

Following to join

I am assuming the situation is that the husband's AOS is pending and he is using AC21 portability. That said, she is entitled to follow to join because she was (is) married to him before his green card got approved. There is NO requirement that a spouse must on a derivative visa (like H-4) in order to follow to join. She can follow to join even if she is outside USA, OR on F-1, H-1, L-1 or any independent visa. She will have to stay outside USA if her H-1 is denied, unless he revives his H-1 and brings her back on H-4.

Employment-based out of status protection for AOS - Section 245(K)

Pursuant to section 245k of INA, an employment-based applicant and their family can file for an AOS (I-485) if they have been out of status or have worked without authorization for less than 180 days. The protection period is counted since the date of your most recent entry into USA. So if before filing I-485, you leave USA and reenter, you should have no issues. There are other ways to fix this also, but this is the most direct.
See attached USCIS Neufield Memo of 14 July 2008.

I-485: pre-adjudication and employment verification letter

1. EVL can be asked for at any stage of AOS/I-485 process. It is REQUIRED when you submit the 485, but thereafter it is discretionary.

2. The main reasons are that USCIS has to make sure you still have a job and the job is "same or similar" to what was described in the labor cert (or I-140 for EB1).

3. This means your application has been reviewed and adjudicated to be approvable. So, USCIS is just waiting for the visa numbers to be current.

 

 

Status, authorized period of stay and unlawful presence

Status, authorized period of stay and unlawful presence are three VERY important concepts in US immigration laws with far reaching implications. The nuances in these concepts are so intricate that they can trip up even my fellow-lawyers. I see issues in this all the time.

Here is a brief primier to enable you to understand the basics. This is by no means an exhaustive analysis.

Status

I-485 interview-- does arrest create a problem

Quote: I just got a letter from USCIS that I need to appear for a I-485 interview. I had applied my green card under the EB-XX. To update you i had an arrest record in 2005 for a domestic violence battery case, which was later dismissed in court. Also you might be aware my wife is currently in india, and we are under separation. She will join me on (XXX date) if she agrees for marriage counseling. Under these circumstances I had some questions which I wanted answers for: Please let me know your response.
 

H-1 Extension based upon spouse's 140; Child born in USA

Quote: 1. Hello Rajiv, my wife and I have been working on H1B for different employers. My employer applied for my GC in 07. I have my I-140 approved, my wife and I have our EAD cards and AP. Thanks to your team! Now my wife's H1B term (6 years) ends on Jan 2010. Does this mean that if she wishes to continue her employment with the same employer after Jan 2010, she "HAS" to use her EAD ?

Ans. Yes. Under the current USCIS policy, they will not extend her H-1, based upon your I-140. They used to do that a few years ago, but not any more, as far as I know.
 

EB-3 "Unavailable"

Correct. "Unavailable" means that it is the ESTIMATE of the State Department that visa numbers for India are exhausted for this fiscal year which ends on September 30. But the estimate may not always be accurate. DOS may go back and reopen this category if they need to (unlikely, but not impossible). Your green card can go on in your absence. That is no problem as long as we have answers to these questions: 1. Is the job really permanent? 2. Why is the employer accommodating you? 3. Who is performing the job in your absence?

GC future job; H-1 ext. revocation upon 140 denial, etc

Ans. Yes. As long as the employer has the intention of keeping the job open for you and you have the intention to join them, the green card process can continue.

Quote: If by any chance they say that I can do it, does it involve just an amendment to my H1b or will it be a fresh H1b? My job responsibilities will change and $8000 change in salary only.( from Research Associate to resident). If yes, can I join residency before the amendment is approved? I heard that INS should receive the petition before the join date and I am fine.

Converting from EAD back to H-1--Updated 6 April 2009

 

Quote: I am currently on H1b status valid till may-2011 and have a valid EAD card, My I-485 is pending for over 180 days. My company has cut my position and may revoke my H1b. If I transfer my H1b to another company and then work on EAD. Will my H1b remain in the dormant status?

Ans. Yes.

Quote: If yes, can i switch back to my H1b if i wish to? and what would be the process?( go out of country to get stamped?)

Employers and Employees -- H-1 or EAD?

 There are two situations to analyze here: being benched and getting paid a lower salary. Both of them have problematic implications for employers and employees.

Here is what concerns me. As far as I know, it has never been done so far, but the possible consequences of being benched are that the I-485 can be denied and (POSSIBLY, but there are strong arguments against it) I-140 could be revoked if already approved. If I-140 is not approved, USCIS could easily deny the I-140.

H-1 and EAD

Qo. I plan to be on EAD after my 6th year of H1-B expires on September 23, 2008. If I decide to be back on H1-B then is there any time limit within we have to file for H1B extension after its expiration on September 23, 2008 while I am working on EAD?
Ans. Generally speaking there is no time limit as long as you are entitled to the extension.

Qo. For example, will we have to file within 6 months or 1 year after September 23, 2008 while I-185 is still pending?

I-485 Priority Dates and Processing Dates

In a pending AOS (I-485), unless your PD is current, USCIS will not touch your application. Only when the PD becomes current, they start processing applications ROUGHLY in the order received.

GC Compliance for Employers

Quote: (1) If we revoke their H-1, are we still required to pay full wages if our clients say they do not currently have a project for our employees?

Ans. You are not required to pay "bench salaries" for employees whose H-1 are revoked (remember you must inform CIS and offer employee a one-way ticket home). But we then have exposure to the questions, "do you still have a "permanent" job for them?" If the answer is no, then their GC processing can be interrupted unless they use AC21 portability.

Starting business while in AOS/I-485/H-1/H-4

1. She can NOT do this on H-4. Once you folks file 485 and get EAD, things will be different.

You can then be a passive investor (performing no work type activity for the company) even while on H-1. You can also be an active investor if you wish to move to EAD as long as you maintain your intention to work full time for the GC sponsoring employer. Your wife can work for the company, own it, be partners, etc. as long as she has the EAD.

Am I obliged to join my sponsoring employer after GC approval?

Quote: 1) Do I need to inform company ‘B’ and be in their payroll with immediate effect?
2) If company ‘B’ cannot provide me a job in my location and offer the salary I demand, is it a valid reason for me not to join ‘B’?
3) How should I inform company ‘A’ about my green card and what is the best reason to justify my case to continue work with company ‘A’?
or Should I inform company ‘A’ only when I fill the I-9 form next year Jan 2010.

Does chargeability change with citizenship change?

Still, India. Your chargeability follows the place of birth, not your citizenship.

Start-up applying for H-1 and AC21 for employees
AC21 Portability and Related Issues

Quote:

Both me & my wife have EAD and have our full time job. My question is , it is possible for us to start a new LLC ??

Further questions on AC21

Quote:

 I would like to be on my H1B even with the new employer. To my knowledge we should file a new H1B within a month but due to the market situation if I have to get on to EAD then can I get back to H1B? If yes then with in how many days should I apply for H1B?

Supervisory review

Pretty much anything can be within the context of a case. Supervisory review means just that - a review by a senior level adjudicator. Usually, that means there is some unusual procedural or legal issue involved. The good news is that, means your case is being reviewed, the bad, we don't know for what. You can try to go through a Congressman's office to find out more if you like.

AOS Pending, Should H-1 be Renewed

Bottomline - I think H-1 should be renewed.

A little more info: A few months ago, I used to feel strongly that AOS applicants should keep their H-1 active for several reasons. Two of these are:

One, EAD issuance was erratic and CIS had discontinued issuance of interim EAD's (that is, if in 90 days your EAD is not issued, you could walk with a infopass appointment to your local CIS office and get an EAD). Thus, EAD's were unreliable and given for only a year. You could have interruptions in your work.

Priority Date and AOS (Form I-485) Processing

As of July 2008, this is how the system works.

First, let me provide a little background. Priority Date is the date your PERM is filed (in Case of EB-1 or NIW – the date your I-140 is filed; in case of Family-based petitions – the date your I-130 is filed.).

EAD and H-1 Conversions for Derivatives

Qo1. Would it be advisable for my wife(secondary applicant) to change to EAD in case she gets a better employment with another employer? This employer is not willing to transfer H1.
Ans. That should be fine.

Qo2. All that is required to work on EAD is fill in form I-9 and submit a copy of EAD with it. Does the employer have to do anything like notifying USCIS etc?
Ans2. The employer has to do nothing more than prepare the I-9 and keep updating it every time new EAD is issued.

 

Gap in Employment during AOS

Q1. Is there any limit or restriction for number of days without work between changing job?
Ans. No. I do not believe a few weeks should make a difference.

Q2. Will this impact his GC process?
Ans. Not as long as he is eligible for AC21 portability.

AOS Denial – Consequences for H-1

Qo. If an AOS (adjustment of status or I-485) applicant has already used up six years on H1 and is currently in 8th year of H1, what are his/her options if AOS gets denied before the 8th year on H1 expires?
Ans. A lot depends upon the grounds of denial and whether they are likely to be overturned on a Motion to Reopen/Reconsider. Do note, there is no appeal against a 485 denial.

How to change from Adjustment of Status to Consular Processing for green card
Getting married when AOS I-485 is pending (following to join and other options)
The Proposed I-140 EAD Rule - FAQ's

Question 1: Redo the PERM or just the I-140. If redoing the PERM again then what's new in this regulation? 

Answer: After 180 days, you can extend H-1 even if 140 is withdrawn.

Question 2: It seems that there is no easy provision for EAD/AP for approved 140 applicants. So is there any point in waiting for this rule or Should I consider Visa stamping is only option for traveling outside US? Please suggest as I waited for a year or long thought they are going to give AP.

Applying for green card while visiting the USA
October 2015 Visa Bulletin Confusion FAQ's

FAQ's Updated on 21 September 2015 

Priority date port and multiple I-485/AOS petitions

See clip from Attorney Rajiv S. Khanna's conference call video that addresses this question.

https://youtu.be/OMuYdzLJ2qQ?t=1436

FAQ Transcript:

I-485/AOS/AC21 issues in job through future employer - I-485/AOS
Using Obama's Immigration Action to Apply for AOS/EAD

See clip from Attorney Rajiv S. Khanna's conference call video that addresses this question. 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QvnIAm0nQJ8#t=808

FAQ Transcript

J-1 Physician in Waiver Job Applying for AOS/1-485

 See clip from Attorney Rajiv S. Khanna's conference call video that addresses this question. 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3YV-qIlAEpI#t=1320

 

FAQ Transcript

Concurrent AOS filing for EB-2 Physical Therapist

Concurrent filing is possible ONLY if your priority date for EB-2 is current, and not backlogged.

EB-2 eligibility

If your job requires BS + 5 years experience and you meet the requirements, EB2 is a possibility. Assuming you are born in a country for which the EB2 priority dates are current, you should get an EAD while the 140 and AOS are still pending.